Determinants of foreign direct real estate investment in selected MENA countries

Salem, Mohamed and Baum, Andrew (2016) Determinants of foreign direct real estate investment in selected MENA countries. Journal of Property Investment and Finance, 34 (2). pp. 116-142.


– The purpose of this paper is to identify the main determinants of foreign direct real estate investments (foreign direct investment (FDI)) in selected Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries.

– The empirical work of this study is an econometric analysis of FDI in the commercial real estate sector for eight MENA markets, namely Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Tunisia and the UAE during the period 2003-2009. The econometric analysis is carried out using the pooled Tobit model technique for panel data.

– The paper finds that both country-specific factors and real estate sector-specific variables consistently support hypotheses explaining commercial real estate-related FDI, and find evidence that political stability explains why some selected MENA countries attract more real estate investments than other MENA countries.

Practical implications
– The findings should be seriously considered in any policy making effort on the part of governments in the region.

– The authors contribute to the existing literature in many ways. First, the study aims to develop econometric models, using both conventional and unique variables, to be generalised and applied to any developed or emerging market. The study applies relevant techniques in estimating the models, including the pooled Tobit model. Second, the research studies eight selected MENA real estate markets from 2003 to 2009, a timeframe and geography not examined in previous published empirical work on commercial real estate investments. Lastly, and for the first time in real estate literature, the study applies the location dimension of Dunning’s OLI paradigm as a theoretical explanation for the behaviour of foreign investors in commercial real estate towards the selected MENA markets.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Commercial real estate, MENA countries, Foreign direct investment, Panel data analysis, Dunning’s eclectic paradigm, Greenfield development
Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2016 08:31
Last Modified: 11 Sep 2018 10:31
Funders: not applicable

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