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This research note presents an Arab form of the VSM 94, a version of Hofstede's cultural value survey. It describes the dimensions that underlie the questionnaire and discusses preliminary findings from a study conducted with an Arab student sample. The results obtained for the sub-samples differ from what the literature suggests. Scores for power distance and uncertainty avoidance were lower than expected, while scores for masculinity and individualism were higher. The specific characteristics of the sample of this study and a systematic value change are explored as possible explanations of this result, but neither explanation is sufficient. This outcome raises doubts about the appropriateness of the procedure and the dimensions Hofstede suggests for the VSM 94.
This article addresses methodological issues in the description and evaluation of nonverbal behavior (NVB) in cross-cultural studies. Videos containing cultural samples of NVB are of little use when analyzing the effects of NVB across cultures. Since video recordings confuse visible behavior with the physical appearances of the actors, they are likely to activate stereotypes derived from hints about an actor’s culture and ethnicity that override the effects of the observed NVB. As a solution for this problem, we suggest here a unified computerized method for the transcription and experimental simulation of NVB. This approach makes use of advanced 3-D animation tools to generate detailed protocols of NVB that can be used to generate culture-free stimulus materials using standardized virtual characters.