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The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the instrumental perspective on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in practice and theory by relying on sociological analyses of a well known organization: the Italian Mafia. Legal businesses might share features of the Mafia, such as the propensity to exploit a governance vacuum in society, a strong organizational identity that demarcates the inside from the outside, and an extreme profit motive. Instrumental CSR practices have the power to accelerate a firm's transition to Mafia status through its own pathologies. The boundaries of such instrumentalism are explored and lessons for future CSR research derived, with specific emphasis on a firm's social and normative embeddedness, taking into account the inherent challenge of regulating corporate behaviour in the global economy.
In contrast to content-based models of corporate social responsibility (CSR), we propose a process model of organizational sensemaking explaining how managers think, discuss, and act with respect to their key stakeholders and the world at large. We also propose a set of cognitive, linguistic, and conative dimensions to identify such an intrinsic orientation that guides CSR-related activities. Recognizing patterns of interrelationships among these dimensions might lead to a better understanding of a firm's CSR impact and generate a rich research agenda that links key organizational features to CSR character.
Past decades have witnessed the growing success of branding as a corporate activity as well as a rise in anti-brand activism. While appearing to be contradictory, both trends have emerged from common sources - the transition from industrial to post-industrial society, and the advent of globalization - the examination of which might lead to a socially grounded understanding of why brand success in the future is likely to demand more than superior product performance, placing increasing demand on corporations with regard to a broader envelop of socially responsible behavior. Directions for strategic and managerial options are suggested.
The authors, who conducted an inquiry in to the state of marketing education in China, found that 75% of the students they interviewed say that what they learn in the classroom is not relevant in the marketplace. This fact underlines the rather poor state of marketing education in the world's second-largest economy. The authors serve up a sound prescription for improving the way marketing is taught, and for making it much easier for western managers to hire local marketers. While our research has shown that the development of marketing is well under way in China, a range of severe road blocks can be anticipated as a result of the country's flawed approach to nurturing marketing talent. Now -- and for the future -- the challenge is to change mindsets from the ad-hoc to the systematic and from the tactical to the strategic, to avoid the overly theoretical and to combine sound practical instincts with state of the art analysis.
This article explores the challenge of merging brands successfully following corporate mergers. It develops a framework for corporate and product branding strategies, as well as for creating the appropriate brand identity among the merged firm's target consumers. A critical key to successful brand mergers is to align the architecture of the merged brand portfolio to brand strategy and identity.
Presents information on different approaches to brand mergers. Response of the selected business model; Concept of collapsing brands within the chosen flow; Discussion on coverage and coherence in consolidations.
Capitalism is facing a crisis. All who believe in business - from CEOs to business school professors - must recognize that they have contributed to this crisis. The problem is simple, yet profound: Everyone is captive of five half-truths that shape the way people think about business and the way they do business. As a result, they may be in the process of destroying the very thing they cherish. The five half-truths are: 1. They are only in it for themselves. 2. Corporations exist to maximize shareholder value. 3. Companies need CEOs who are heroic leaders. 4. Companies need to be lean and mean. And 5. A rising tide lifts all boats.
Traditional western society is based on a balance between private and public interests, the economic and the social spheres of life. However, in recent years this balance has been completely upset, in favour of the private and economic. This has driven six wedges between business and society, fueled by as many half truths: a wedge of distrust, generated by the idea of homo oeconomicus; a wedge of disconnection, generated by the idea that the goal of the firm is to create shareholder value (how can that engage organisational member?); a wedge of disconnection, caused by the view of leadership as heroic and separate from the file and rank; a wedge of discontinuity, consequence of the continuous attempt to cut the fat out of organisations, that rendered them anorexic and unable to plan for the future; and a wedge of disparity, caused by the rising tide of prosperity which actually left the poorest behind. To counter all this, the authors suggest trying to go back towards engagement, leaving selfishness behind and restoring the original balance.
Examines the extreme form of market leadership known as market share dominance. Firstly, cites the advantages of market leadership and then goes on to discuss the case of market share dominance in the Thai imported Scotch whisky market, providing a detailed comparison of the marketing mix of the leader and challenger. Next reports the results of four market research studies by ACNielsen in Thailand over the same nine-year period which examined consumer attitudes and image patterns among male whisky-drinkers. Ascribes consumers' behavioural loyalty to a market leader to double jeopardy - the disadvantage suffered by the challenger as a result of lower market share, and therefore fewer customers, together with the tendency of the leader's loyal consumers to buy more frequently. Ends by proposing an alternative approach which includes a market share threshold beyond which brand dominance becomes deeply embedded and therefore much more difficult to dislodge.
Focuses on the concept of global branding. How the creation of a distinct retail entity is influenced by global branding; Popularity of Internet-based transactions in business communications; Discussion on brand imaging and market positioning.
A system of exchange for marketing pharmaceuticals to developing countries is described, identifying the key conflicts among its constituents. A research agenda for marketing is suggested, involving both systemic characteristics and exchange behaviours. A framework for public policy appropriate for governments in the developing world is proposed.
Customer loyalty is viewed as the strength of the relationship between an individual’s relative attitude and repeat patronage. The relationship is seen as mediated by social norms and situational factors. Cognitive, affective, and conative antecedents of relative attitude are identified as contributing to loyalty, along with motivational, perceptual, and behavioral consequences. Implications for research and for the management of loyalty are derived.
Discriminating between analytic and nonanalytic categorization mechanisms can be of value in designing marketing stimuli that facilitate consumers' acceptance of a product/brand. Two methodological paradigms were employed, the first involving the outcome of categorization judgments made by consumers for unfamiliar products/brands. The second, based on the retrieval of exemplars acquired during category learning and verification of their match with the target, was subjected to its first empirical examination. Both the category judgment and verification paradigms were found to be promising in terms of model identification. Potential complimentarities between the two, as well as operational refinements are suggested.
This study investigated the effects of mood on product evaluation. Subjects were asked to evaluate the stereo speakers on which they heard music that induced either a good or a bad mood. Subjects' awareness of the music as the source of their mood was manipulated to be high or low. The results of this 2 x 2 design suggested that under low source awareness, mood biased the evaluation of the speakers, in that subjects evaluated the speakers more favorably when in a good mood than in a bad mood. By contrast, under high source awareness there was no difference in speaker evaluations between those in a good or bad mood. A consideration of those in a good or bad mood suggested that it was only the former who were able to correct for the bias in their evaluations when made more aware of the source of their mood. These results suggested that even when motivated to attend to an outside stimulus and to evaluate it objectively, those in a bad mood may have a limited ability to do so.
A consumer's prior evaluation of an advertised brand is hypothesized to moderate the effectiveness of humor in advertising. Further, cognitive responses are hypothesized as mediators of the impact of humorous ads on brand attitude. The results support the hypothesized moderator role of prior brand evaluation: when prior evaluation of the advertised brand is positive, a humorous ad is more effective than its nonhumorous counterpart in changing consumer attitudes and choice behavior. When consumers have a negative prior attitude, the opposite is true: a humorous ad is less effective in changing consumer attitudes and choice behavior than its nonhumorous counterpart. The results also support the conceptualization of cognitive responses as mediators of the impact of humorous advertisements on brand attitude.
Widely varying accounts of how people categorize new instances have been advanced in recent years. It is argued that identification and evaluation of a product are fundamentally intertwined and are outcomes of a process intended both to provide meaning and to facilitate a readiness to respond. The various alternative models of the categorization process are reviewed with an emphasis on the use of concrete category exemplars as opposed to category-defining rules and prototypes (feature-based processes). A contingency-based ''mixed model'' is presented that incorporates the effects of category learning and task-related factors likely to be important in categorization occurrences similar to those faced by consumers. This contingency processing formulation stresses the flexibility of the information processing system in its response to important contextual factors. Finally, research paradigms are introduced that are designed to examine the effects of contingent processing factors on the categorization processes used by the individual.
This article proposes a middle range theory of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a classification scheme of the current CSR debate in theory and practice. There are four features of CSR types-Ideology, Legitimacy, Language, Leadership-while not exhaustive, provide a descriptive framework within which existing CSR practice might be located. Extension in the list of feature descriptors may be envisaged both in terms of impact external to a firm (e.g., marketplace differentiation in terms of CSR), as well as internal characteristics (e.g., reward mechanisms), even levels of costs associated with each prototype. The challenge, however, might lie, not in a full description, but in generating enough features that would allow discrimination to emerge among the considered set of corporations. There is hence, an inherent link between our framework of CSR location (i.e., the Strategy/Value matrix) and the table of featural differences, which in tandem could serve the purpose of category assignment through identification of prototypical features.