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The article identifies constraints that limit employee participation in management's decision-making process. Determinants of participation include: the propensity to participate or workers' interest in being involved in the shared decision-making activities; the organization's participation potential which relates to structural and situational factors; and management's acceptance of workers' participation despite the time pressures and lack of expertise among employees which could delay strategic decisions. Forms of participation on the shop floor can range from job control to joint consultation or employee ownership.
The article presents an overview of the longitudinal-processual theory of organizational formation. The ideological underpinnings of the method are described, highlighting its central focus on the factors and elements of an organization's creation and formation rather than its existent structures or practices. Speculative discussion is given regarding the processes involved in organizational culture, based off of an empirical school administration case study. Additional topics discussed include the influence of "dramatic" events which broadly change the social structure of the environment, the influence of social entrepreneurs, and the specific definition of organizational culture as an entity.