|Up a level|
This paper sets out to examine the assumption made by radical economists that internal labour markets formed by large scale corporate employers provide a source of labour market dichotomization between `core' and `peripheral' employment. It criticizes the assumption that internal labour markets can be treated as a culturally neutral phenomenon emerging from the demands of technical rationality. Since, by definition, the boundaries of internal labour markets are institutionally defined, their forms and rationales display a cross-national diversity which indicates a difference in employer strategies and employee responses to the historical course of technological innovation. In particular it suggests that the struggle for task control over the mode of production represented in the creation of new occupations has, in the Anglo Saxon culture, been more likely to take place at the point of production, whereas in France it has been expressed in overtly class terms and in modern Germany in the bureaucratic control systems adopted by a corporate pluralistic state.
Educational administrators facing change are offered some observations of business management, including an analysis of characteristic responses to change from rich to poor environments, a catalog of managerial styles likely to be discouraged or rewarded in present economic conditions, and recommended practices for managing contraction, especially by reducing fixed costs.
This paper presents an overview of a generic strategic approach which organizations can utilize to meet the rapid, complex, interrelated change encountered in turbulent conditions more effectively. The present approach is arrived at by “distilling” the principles embodied in leading edge planning and management strategies. These principles are integrated theoretically within the action learning approach, which considers learning rooted in action to be a most helpful guiding metaphor to enable effective strategies under such conditions. An exploration is then made of the relationship among action learning and other more traditional organizational modes by comparing this relationship with Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions.
In 1976, the Conservative Party expressed the view that trade unions were “… imperfectly democratic”. Subsequently they returned to this theme in a Green Paper on Union Democracy in 1983 which expressed strong reservations about the electoral practices of trade unions. The Conservatives were concerned that unrepresentative union leaders “misuse(d) the wealth and power” of their unions for their own political ambitions. They noted the growing proportion of trade unionists voting Conservative and contrasted this with the continued dominance of the trade union movement by leaders sympathetic to, if not actually members of, the Labour Party. From this the Conservatives concluded that the voting system used in union elections was defective.