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This paper develops the concept of action learning in terms of holographic principles. It offers an approach to inquiry, learning, and organizational design in terms of minimum critical conditions which seek to enhance capacities for individual and collective self-organization.
The Thatcher government has pledged to bring in statutory provision for ballots in certain trade union elections and for the calling of industrial action. This book examines the current use of ballots in union elections and their effect on participation and leadership selection. Previous discussion of trade union ballots has been based upon unfounded assumptions, limited evidence and incorrect inference from American experience. This is the first analysis of the role of ballots in union elections and collective bargaining based on empirical research in Britain. The authors show how ballots are, at the moment, underused and only one of the ways in which unions consult their members. They also explore the circumstances likely to lead to balloting under current legislation and its consequences. The book provides a most detailed look at the history, current practice and future possibilities for the use of ballots in trade unions. It will inform both the industrial relations and legal practitioner and teacher, as well as those, on both sides of the industrial fence, seeking either to promote or ward off change in industrial union practice.
Theories explaining regional differences in new firm formation rates are tested and, refining previous theory, a model is constructed. The major influences on new firm formation rates are found to be the regional proportions of manual workers and home ownership, and the change in the rate of regional unemployment in the preceding year. New firm formation rates are measured by new VAT registrations. The implications of these results for government small firm policy are discussed.