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Widely varying accounts of how people categorize new instances have been advanced in recent years. It is argued that identification and evaluation of a product are fundamentally intertwined and are outcomes of a process intended both to provide meaning and to facilitate a readiness to respond. The various alternative models of the categorization process are reviewed with an emphasis on the use of concrete category exemplars as opposed to category-defining rules and prototypes (feature-based processes). A contingency-based ''mixed model'' is presented that incorporates the effects of category learning and task-related factors likely to be important in categorization occurrences similar to those faced by consumers. This contingency processing formulation stresses the flexibility of the information processing system in its response to important contextual factors. Finally, research paradigms are introduced that are designed to examine the effects of contingent processing factors on the categorization processes used by the individual.
Originated with an Institute for Fiscal Studies project on fiscal policy in the corporate sector that used company accounting data to analyze the effects of corporate taxation on firm behavior, focusing on how company accounts can best be applied to economic analysis. Discusses the assessment of complete activities using accounting profitability data. Reviews the value-to-the-owner rules for capital valuation and the assessment of activities over limited segments using accounting profitability data. Examines inflation accounting, focusing on the case for real terms accounts and alternative profitability measures. Discusses taxation and accounting profitability, and concludes with a summary of proposals.
Taking the reader through the tangled web of opera's opulent history, this book traces its roots back to Ancient Greek music dramas, through the medieval Christian and secular musical plays, to the Renaissance and to the prolific 17th century. It continues with detailed accounts of the 18th century - when opera became a household word - the High Baroque, the French and German heroic and romantic comedies, the great Italian period and the contemporary works of, amongst others, Glass and Birtwistle. This anecdotal study frequently touches on other aspects of opera, including its settings and economics and the social, political and even religious or philosophical elements.
The article focuses on the context and action in the transformation of the firm. The article addresses James MacGregor Burns's assertion that effective leadership is evident by the achievement of real and intended change. The author claims that change leadership can only be measured over time and must consider multiple perspectives, taking into account continuity and change, individual as well as group actions, and patterns and idiosyncracies. The article reviews the current literature on change leadership, presents a longitudinal study of strategic change processes at Imperial Chemical Industries, and interprets the findings of the study.
Book reviewed in this article
Pettigrew, A. M. The Awakening Giant: Continuity and Change in ICI
THEORETICAL, METHODOLOGICAL, AND EMPIRICAL ISSUES IN STUDYING CHANGE: A RESPONSE TO STARKEY
Describes TSB Scotland's experience in managing change, illustrating the contribution personnel management can make towards changing an organisation; outlines the steps taken to attract higher quality recruits, the increased attention being paid to training and the use of branch performance records to identify training needs. Identifies the skills and capabilities which the change process has developed in the personnel function itself.
The paper relates the recent growth of small firms in the UK to the simultaneous growth of small plants and stabilization of large firms in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It argues that the growth in small firms and small plants can be partly understood as the result of large firm fragmentation strategies in response to increasing demand and innovation risk and crisis over control of the labour process. Consequently much small firm employment growth should be regarded as employment transfer, often entailing job losses. The paper goes on to examine the recent fragmentation strategies of three large manufacturing companies in the North West. In conclusion, it is argued that such large manufacturing firm dominated regions as the North West are likely to suffer most from the fragmentation process.
This paper examines the roots of Britain's training problem, drawing links with long-standing industrial decline and lack of competitiveness. It is argued that training has considerable strategic importance in this context, but major attitudinal and structural obstacles are restricting the ability of British management to implement the necessary changes in their human resource management. A major research program in the UK aimed at understanding and facilitating strategic change and human resource management is described in detail.